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May 03, 2010

Glossary of Terms



active area/effective area Top
In the viewing area of the LCD glass, the dimensions of the perimeter of the conductive area.
active matrix display Top
A type of display using thin-film transistors (TFT) to individually control each pixel. Active matrix displays offer higher contrast ratios, wider viewing angles, and faster response times than passive matrix displays.
aperture ratio Top
The ratio of the actual light-transmitting area to the theoretical sub-pixel size calculated based on active area and resolution.
aspect ratio Top
The ratio of width to height. When an image is displayed on different screens, the aspect ratio must be kept the same to avoid 'stretching' in either the vertical or horizontal direction. Aspect ratios are typically 4:3 and 16:9 (or 16:10) for monitors and high-definition televisions (HDTV) respectively.


backlight Top
Some LCD displays are illuminated by the use of separate light sources or backlights that are built into the unit behind the LCD panel.
bezel Top
A frame of plastic or metal that fits around the LCD glass screen to protect the edges of the glass, provide electro static discharge (ESD) and reinforce the LCD panel structure.
brightness Top
The attribute of visual perception in accordance with which an area appears to emit more or less light. (Luminance is the recommended name for the photo-electric quantity which has also been called brightness.)


CCFL (cold cathode fluorescent lamp) Top
A type of fluorescent backlighting or edge lighting.
cell gap Top
The space containing liquid crystal fluid between the two pieces of glass.
COG (chip on glass) Top
A new technology wherein an LCD driver is mounted on the contact edge of the LCD glass substrate.
contrast ratio Top
The ratio of the luminosity of the brightest and the darkest color a display is capable of producing.
color saturation Top
A measure of a color's purity. A highly saturated color contains a very narrow set of wavelengths and appears much more vivid than a similar, but less saturated color.
color temperature Top
Measured in degrees Kelvin, color temperature is a reference providing a standard for defining standard colors emitted from computer displays. 6500K is close to the European TV standard and close to the white color under the sun at noon.
cross talk Top
A phenomenon occurring when voltage leaks from an energized element to an adjacent OFF element and turns the adjacent element partially ON, making them slightly visible.


DVI (Digital Visual Interface) Top
A digital flat panel interface introduced by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG). Although other interfaces have been introduced, DVI is expected to become the industry standard.
DDC (display data channel) Top
A communication channel for the transmission of information between a display monitor and a PC that allows for automatic configuration of the hardware. In other words, "Plug and Play" compatibility.
dot clock/dot frequency Top
The frequency with which dots (or pixels) are illuminated on the screen; how quickly a single dot can be produced on the screen. A general formula for calculating dot frequency is: H x V x refresh-rate x 1.25 (to 1.3).
dot pitch Top
The distance between one pixel to an adjacent pixel (not sub pixel). Dot pitch gives a general idea of a display panel's ability to produce sharp images.




gray level (GL) Top
Level of brightness for each color. Currently, 8-bit-depth driver IC can perform 28=256 levels of brightness for each color, Red, Green and Blue. The total colors of 8-bit-depth driver IC is 256*256*256=16.77M colors.
gray-to-gray response time Top
The switching time between any two gray levels except 0GL to 255GL or 255GL to 0GL.
ghosting Top
Refer to "cross talk".


HDTV (High Definition Television) Top
A new digital television broadcasting system available in several standard resolutions, all of which are higher than traditional formats (NTSC, SECAM and PAL). The video aspect ratio of the HDTV is 16:9, and audio specification of HDTV is Dolby Digital (AC-3).
HRP (High Resolution Process) Top
A technology that improves the optical transmission ratio and realizes very high resolution with ultra fine pitch by applying poly-film to the TFT array.


inverter Top
Converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) power at a high frequency and voltage, and is also used to power fluorescent lamps.
IPS (In-Plane Switching) Top
Developed to improve viewing angles and color reproduction of TN panels. Single domain IPS has slight color shifting at certain viewing angles, whereas dual domain IPS has less color shifting.




lifetime Top
A term related to the issue of display brightness (CRT, LCD, and PDP) decreasing with age. Display lifetime is defined as the time that the brightness of the display decays to half of the original state.
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) Top
A glass panel display that electronically controls the light passing through it using a liquid crystal medium.
LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling) Top
An electrical signaling system that runs at very high speeds over twisted-pair copper cables.
LGP (Light Guide Plate) Top
Converts a line-shape light source to a uniform plane-shape light source.


module Top
An LCD panel that includes a PCB, driver electronics, bezel, and possibly a backlight.
MVA (Multi-domain Vertical Alignment) Top
A type of liquid crystal which aligns vertically in the voltage-off state and where the liquid crystal molecules are arranged in multiple orientations.


The analog television system used in the United States, Canada, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, the Philippines and some other countries, mostly in the Americas. Named for the National Television System(s) Committee, the U.S. standardization body that adopted it, NTSC standard has an aspect ratio of 4:3 and a resolution 720*480.


ODF (One Drop Fill) Top
In the traditional liquid crystal injection method, the cell is vacuum-filled through a capillary effect after two glass substrates are assembled. The ODF method drops the liquid crystal directly on the glass substrate prior to the assembling of the two substrates.
outline dimensions Top
The dimensions of the display module including length, width and thickness.
Omni-View Plus TM Top
A trademark owned by Honeywell and used in display applications featuring high-definition color and wide viewing angle.


PDP (Plasma Display Panel) Top
A type of flat panel display (also known as a "gas discharge display") now commonly used for large TV displays (typically above 32"). Cells located between two panels of glass hold an inert mixture of noble gases (neon and xenon), which is electrically charged to ionize and form a plasma; as the gas ions rush to the electrodes and collide, photons are emitted.
polarizer Top
A stretched polymer which transmits light on only one axis. A typical display has polarizers on the front and the back.
power consumption Top
Usually measured in Watts. An index is used to judge the power saving ability of a device.



refresh rate Top
The frequency with which the entire image on the screen is redrawn. The refresh rate is measured in hertz, therefore, a refresh rate of 60 Hz, means the image is redrawn 60 times per second.
resolution Top
Refers to the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed or the physical number of columns and rows of pixels creating the display.
response time Top
The amount of time a pixel in a display takes to go from 10% (on) to 90% (on) or 90% (off) to 10% (off) of brightness. Lower numbers mean faster transitions and therefore fewer visible image artifacts.
RGB (Red, Green, Blue) Top
The three colors represented as subpixels in LCD technology to compose any color.


sRGB Top
A color space defined by Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard with the aim of color matching between applications and hardware devices such as monitors, scanners, printers, and digital cameras.


TAB (Tape Automated Bonding) Top
A process wherein the LCD driver or controller electronics are encapsulated in a thin, film like package, with metal leads extension from the IC chips.
TFT (Thin Film Transistor) Top
A type of LCD flat-panel display screen, in which each pixel is controlled by one to four transistors. TFT technology provides the best resolution of all the current flat-panel technologies. TFT screens are sometimes called active-matrix LCDs.
Twisted Nematic (TN) Top
A type of liquid crystal where the alignment surface, and therefore the liquid crystal molecules, is oriented 90 degrees from each surface of glass.



VAextreme Top
Refers to a type of LCD panel integrating three brand-new LCD display technologies developed exclusively by CMO - Omniview, VisionREAL, and BlastSWITCH - to provide ultra low color shift, bright and vivid natural color, and ultra fast response time features.
viewing angle Top
A cone perpendicular to the LCD in which minimum contrast can be seen.


WOA (Wire on Array) Top
Acts as an FPC (Flexible Printed Circuit) for connecting X and Y data information. The weight and cost of LCD module has been further reduced through the use of WOA and COG.




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